Silver nanomaterials, which possess antimicrobial activity, have been used in many feminine hygiene products for contraception and anti-infection purposes. However, whether and how silver nanomaterials affect the female reproductive system remains an open scientific question, which researchers should be working to elucidate.
Recently, a joint research group led by Prof. Chunying Chen (National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing) and Prof. Xiaochun Wu (National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing) have demonstrated that gold nanorod core/silver shell nanostructures ([email protected] NRs) are toxic to primary rat granulosa cells. In this study, primary rat granulosa cells were exposed to [email protected] NRs and their effects were compared with the effects of primary rat granulosa cells exposed to gold nanorods (Au NRs).
Primary rat granulosa cells treated with [email protected] NRs generated more reactive oxygen species, had reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and produced less adenosine triphosphate. Eventually, these cells underwent mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, it was found that [email protected] NRs can promote the secretion of two steroids, namely progesterone and estradiol, by primary rat granulosa cells in a time and dose-dependent manner.
Interestingly, highest degree of apoptosis and steroidogenesis occurred simultaneously after 24h [email protected] NRs exposure. This implies a correlation between apoptosis and elevated steroidogenesis induced by silver nanomaterials in primary rat granulosa cells. Lastly, the physical chemical properties of [email protected] NRs were investigated to unveil the underlying mechanisms of these biological phenomena. Both the surface reactivity and intracellular silver ion release of [email protected] NR contribute to the toxic response of granulosa cells.
This work shed more light on the mechanisms by which nanosilver mediates toxic effects in ovary granulosa cells. More importantly, caution should be taken when using nanosilver–containing feminine products.